Design research meets lesson study in training program for mathematics teachers
Ratu Ilma Indra Putri http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1802-7757
Lecture at Universitas Sriwijaya, Indonesia
Abstract. Lesson study is a system of learning activities that focus on teaching teachers and student activities while design research is a method to assist teachers in developing learning materials. The purpose of this paper to describe the implementation of the training program uses a combination of lesson study and design research for mathematics teachers at the PMRI pilot school in Palembang Indonesia. The research method used is design research that uses the lesson study system. The research subjects in this study were mathematics teachers at 2 (two) junior high school in Palembang, Indonesia. Through focus group discussions, data is collected using observation, interviews, and video recording. The results of the study show that by combining the lesson study system and design research method can improve the ability of teachers to collaborate, communicate, and design mathematical learning materials namely lesson plan, pretest, sharing task, jumping task, and post-test. Starting from the lesson plan and preliminary design stages in design research, the teacher collaborated in designing learning materials using realistic mathematical learning theories. Next, the ‘do’ stage in lesson study and the ‘design experiment’ stage in design research, researchers tested the learning materials in small groups and research subjects. From the results of the study, it was shown that when the learning devices developed were tested, and students could develop the ability to collaborate in solving mathematical problems both in sharing and jumping tasks. Besides that, it shows the teacher’s ability to manage the class well so that the culture of ‘please teach me’ can be done. Furthermore, the reflection phase on lesson study and retrospective analysis on design research shows that, although it has the same purpose, it has a different focus. In the reflection stage, the expression is focused when students collaborate, while in the retrospective analysis phase, it is focused on comparing the implementation of learning materials designed in the class. The conclusion in this study is through combining lesson study and design research, can improve the ability to teach and design teachers.
Connecting visual representations and action research in the teaching and learning of mathematics
Masitah Shahrill https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9395-0798
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam,
Abstract. The practice of action research is to discover what works best in a particular classroom situation thus allowing informed decisions about the teaching. The four basic steps of an action research cycle typically involve planning, action, observation or collection and reflection or reviewing. These steps are then repeated in a recursive sequence creating a spiral that is adaptable in improving practice. This study investigated the alternative teaching strategies implemented by seven pre-service teacher candidates enrolled in a graduate teacher education programme in one of the universities in Brunei Darussalam. They all specialised in the subject area of Mathematics at the Secondary Education level with the exception of one in Primary Education. As part of their core module, they were required to conduct a site-based action research study that will enable them to link research with the improvement of practice in a chosen area of investigation. They each embedded visual representations, mainly on the use of comics as a teaching tool for the planned and designed intervention lessons in their respective classes. In order for the teacher candidates to measure the effectiveness of the teaching aids used, pre- and post-tests were disseminated, collected and analysed quantitatively. Meanwhile, their students’ perceptions were collated from surveys and/or interviews. Using this alternative teaching tool revealed several positive impacts on the students’ learning, performances and lesson interactions. The research design that was used, the overall outcomes and the challenges encountered will be further elaborated in this paper.
Learning trajectory from a curricular perspective:
A case of number topic in Indonesian and American Curriculum
Ariyadi Wijaya https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2681-0250
Department of Mathematics Education, Yogyakarta State University
Abstract. Many research studies on learning trajectory have been done from a micro perspective at the level of mathematics topic. Such studies result in local instruction theories for learning particular mathematics concepts. The present study discusses learning trajectory in macro-level from the perspective of curriculum. The aim of the study is to investigate how number topic is taught across grades in Indonesian curriculum and the United State of America’s Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). Differences are found between the two curricula. In the CCSSM number is introduced since Kindergarten Level, whereas in Indonesia it is officially introduced in Grade 1. Another difference is found in terms of the number that is taught in every grade. The limitation of number for a grade in Indonesian curriculum is mainly based on place value, e.g. for Grade 1 is up to 99 and for Grade 2 is up to 999. In CCSSM the number that is taught in every grade is not only based on place value, but also the combination of its factors; e.g. for Kindergarten is up to 31, for Grade 1 is up to 120, and for Grade 2 is up to 1000.
Development of Open Online Ethnomathematics Course
Marcellinus Andy Rudhito
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2692-0265, Yosep Dwi Kristanto, and Margaretha Madha Melissa
Department of Mathematics Education, Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Abstract. Ethnomathematics examines mathematical aspects in a particular culture of a community or region. Ethnomathematics studies are still very potential to be carried out for Indonesian culture that is very rich and diverse. The results of this ethnomatematics study, in addition to increasing knowledge in mathematics and mathematics education, can also be utilized in mathematics learning, especially in the provision of contextual problems. To accelerate and enrich the ethnomathematics study in this broad Indonesian culture, it is necessary to involve many people in all regions of Indonesia. In this study, a virtual class was designed and developed by utilizing the Moodle Learning Management System to facilitate and empower students, teachers, lecturers and observers of mathematics education in conducting ethnomathematics studies. This study aims to design and develop virtual classrooms using Moodle that can facilitate people who will conduct ethnomatematics studies in Indonesia, and analyze the feasibility of the aforementioned virtual classes developed. The present study employs design research, which includes the context analysis phase, literature review, design and development of virtual classes, focus group discussions, limited trials, broad implementation, and implementation analysis. The results discussed in this article include the stage of context analysis, literature review, design and development of virtual classes and focus group discussions.
The Development of Teaching Material on Ethnoscience-Based Chemistry Learning Innovation Courses
Atiek Winarti https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0989-9924, Almubarak
Chemistry Education Department, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat
Chemistry Education Department, Universitas Islam Negeri Antasari
Abstract. Innovation is one of the competencies that students must have in facing the era of industrial revolution 4.0. The Chemistry Education Study Program of FKIP Lambung Mangkurat University addresses this by developing the valid and practical teaching material in Chemistry Learning Innovation courses. The teaching material was developed based on ethnoscience with a review of knowledge related to chemical sciences in wetland environments which are typical of South Kalimantan region, with the aim that students can apply learning innovations to regional cultures which mostly consist of wetlands. The development of this teaching material was carried out with a four-D design from Thiagarajan consisted of Define, Design, Develop and Disseminate stages. The validators consist of 3 experts and the trial subjects are 15 Chemistry Study Program students who have taken the subject of Chemistry Learning Innovation. The data were obtained by using the questionnaires of teaching materials validation and learning observation sheets. The data were analyzed using percentage techniques. The results of the study showed that teaching material developed is valid with an average validation score of 4.5. The teaching material developed is practical with a mean score of lecturer’s activities of 4.3 and student’s activities average score of 4.5. The use of chemistry-based ethnoscience innovations examples that are typical of South Kalimantan such as making hintalu jaruk (salted eggs), lanting houses, and kelotok vessels attract students to learn the instructional material developed and apply them in daily life.
Using context from PISA task in problem generation and reformulation: Teachers’ experience in problem posing activities
Tatag Yuli Eko Siswono https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7108-8279, Ahmad Wachidul Kohar, Sugi Hartono
Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia
Abstract. Designing context-based mathematics problem like in PISA is recognised as a challenging activity for teachers. This paper aims to report the experiences of a group of secondary mathematics teachers in designing context-based mathematics problems within an innovative training program which use problem-solving and problem-posing activities in deepening understanding on conext-based problem. As many as 40 teachers from Jember city were involved in the program. Within five days training, the teachers were encouraged to have workshop in working out some problem-solving tasks and learning problem posing technique, namely problem generation and problem reformulation. Data were collected from teachers’ designed items of context-based task produced in one hour workshop using contexts selected from two PISA task released items in 2012. Results point out that teachers designed around 8-10 items for each of problem generation and problem reformulation task. The challenges experienced by teachers were around in turning these contexts into an appropriate problem satisfying PISA framework such as regarding authenticity of context use, language structure, plausibility of the solution of the problem, and sufficiency of information in the problem designed. The implication of this study is to support teachers to design and use their own context-based mathematics task within their classroom teaching.
Does reflection improve lessons? A case study of pre-service teachers’ lesson design in lesson study
Mathematics Department, State University of Jakarta, Indonesia
Abstract. The process of lesson design and redesign is in the heart of improving teaching. This paper is a part of a larger study focusing on lesson study for pre-service teachers. Using case study methodology, the purpose of this paper is to find out whether reflection drives the lesson design process in lesson study for pre-service teachers. Lesson study was implemented in two secondary schools where ten pre-service teachers from one university in Jakarta conducted their teaching practicum. The pre-service teachers were supervised by mentor teachers and university lecturers. In each school, they formed two lesson study groups. This paper focuses on data from one lesson study group in each school. Data were collected through video recording, interviews, and field notes. The findings show that the lesson design process in the planning was driven by the pre-service teachers’ knowledge of mathematics and knowledge of students’ learning. The lesson observation and evidence of students’ work shaped the focus of the reflection in the post-lesson discussion which resulted in redesigning some parts of the lesson.
Development of Bio-Act learning model: Character education model in Biological learning in higher education
Luisa Diana Handoyo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3625-581X
Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Abstract. Currently, character education is one of the programs promoted by the Indonesian government. This is because there are many cases that show that Indonesia’s young generation undergo moral decadence. Education, is a tool in forming the character of the younger generation, including in higher education. Character education models can be developed and implemented in learning processes. This study aims to develop a character education model, the Bio-Act learning model. The development of the Bio-Act learning model uses design research method with the modification of the Plomp model, which consists of 3 stages, namely preliminary research, prototyping stage, and assessment stage. Through this research, produced the Bio-Act learning model as a combination of service-learning model and experiential learning models. This learning model are complemented by syntax, principles of reaction, social systems, support systems, instructional impacts and accompaniment impacts. The learning model is implemented in two courses, namely the Practicum of Environmental Health and Human Health Sciences. The results of the effectiveness test show that the Bio-Act learning model is effective in developing the character of social care and student responsibility.
Developing teachers professional development programs using design research method: Developing teachers’ PCK
Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Abstract. Since the introduction by Shulman in the early 1980s, Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) has been identified as a key teachers’ knowledge that influences teachers’ classroom activity. The identification of this particular type of knowledge developed awareness that the improvement of teachers’ competencies should take the teachers’ PCK into account. If the teachers’ classroom activities need to be improved, the professional development programs should also aware of the teachers’ knowledge and beliefs related to their daily classroom practices. This research was aiming at developing a teacher professional development model with the development of PCK as a main improvement indicator. The research implemented Design Research method. The participants of the research were science teachers and mathematics teachers of Junior High School in Yogyakarta participating in the STEM approach project. The data collected during the processes of preparation, implementation, and evaluation-reflection of the implementation of STEM approach through interviews, focus discussion group, and questionnaires. The research resulted a model of teachers’ professional development program that focuses not only on the teachers competencies but also the teachers’ knowledge that drive their activities in the classroom. One of the main features of the model is on its time allocation dedicated for teachers to be aware of their value and knowledge system and to reflect on the extent to which their value and knowledge system influence their teaching practices.